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DDoS attcks and How to prevent them

All about DDoS Attacks and How to Prevent Them

It is vital to have uninterrupted service whether you operate a small business or a personal website. If your website is slow or entirely unavailable, you may lose users and clients.

To build the most satisfactory security solution, every business owner must understand Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks thoroughly. Navigating DDoS attack types and their key characteristics is an important technique to gain expertise. 

What are DDoS Attacks?

DDoS attacks are carried out via networks of Internet-connected computers. These networks are made up of computers and other devices (such as IoT devices) that have been infected with malware. This allows an attacker to manage them remotely. Individual devices are known as bots (or zombies), while a network of bots is known as a botnet. After establishing a botnet, the attacker may conduct an attack by sending remote commands to each bot.

These attacks try to take down or slow down the targeted website by flooding the network, server, or application with fake traffic. DDoS attacks are malicious attempts to render internet services unavailable to users, frequently causing their hosting server to be temporarily interrupted or suspended. Because each bot is a legitimate Internet device, distinguishing attack traffic from regular traffic can be difficult.

DDoS attacks on websites and organizations of all sizes are common. GitHub was hit by one of the most remarkable DDoS attacks in 2018, taking the company’s website down for ten minutes. A DDoS attack disrupted the BBC’s whole network of websites in 2015. Moreover, numerous South African banking websites were targeted by ransom-driven DDoS attacks in 2019.

How to identify a DDoS attack?

The most visible indication of a DDoS attack is a site or service that becomes unexpectedly slow or inaccessible to legitimate traffic. However, even a minor shift in lawful traffic might cause many problems. Thus it is vital to look at a plethora of additional evidence. Users who have the same behavioral profile, device type, geography, or web browser version will generate a flood of traffic. DDoS attacks’ telltale signals can be detected using traffic analytics software. The server returns a 503 error and a service outage. Ping requests and TTL time-outs are also possible.

What are some common types of DDoS attacks?

Broadly speaking, DoS and DDoS attacks can be divided into three types:

  • Application Layer Attacks
  • Volume-based Attacks
  • Protocol Attacks

Application layer attacks

The purpose of application layer or layer 7 DDoS attacks (referring to the OSI model’s 7th layer) is to deplete the target’s resources and cause a denial of service. Layer 7 attacks are difficult to protect against since it might be difficult to distinguish between malicious and genuine communication.

An application-layer attack targets an application and particular vulnerabilities or flaws, preventing the program from communicating with or delivering content to its users (s).

Application Layer Attacks include low-and-slow attacks, GET/POST floods, and attacks against Apache, Windows, or OpenBSD vulnerabilities, among other things. The scope of the attack is measured in Requests per second (Rps).

The fundamental efficacy of most DDoS attacks stems from the difference between the resources required to launch an attack and the resources required to absorb or neutralize one. While this is true for L7 attacks, the efficiency of influencing both the targeted server and the network needs less total bandwidth to produce the same disruptive effect; an application layer attack does more significant harm with less total bandwidth.

An attacker may use a layer seven or application layer attack to target the application itself. Like SYN flood infrastructure attacks, the attacker attempts to overload particular components of an application to render it inaccessible or unresponsive to legitimate users. This is sometimes possible with very low request volumes that create only a modest amount of network traffic. As a result, the attack may be challenging to identify and neutralize. Examples of application-layer attacks are HTTP floods, cache-busting attacks, and WordPress XML-RPC floods.

An attacker launches a WordPress XML-RPC flood attack, also known as a WordPress pingback flood, against a website running on the WordPress content management platform. The attacker uses the XML-RPC API function to send a flood of HTTP requests. The pingback function allows a WordPress-hosted website (Site A) to alert another WordPress site (Site B) via a link that Site A has built to Site B. Site B then seeks to retrieve Site A to confirm the existence of the link. The attacker leverages this capability in a pingback flood to induce Site B to attack Site A. These attacks have a distinct signature: WordPress is generally included in the HTTP request header’s User-Agent field.

An attacker can choose to exploit the TLS negotiation process if a web application is served through Transport Layer Security (TLS). TLS is computationally costly; therefore, an attacker can degrade service availability by producing extra stress on the server to treat unreadable data (or incomprehensible (ciphertext)) as a genuine handshake. An attacker completes the TLS handshake but constantly renegotiates the encryption mechanism in a variant of this attack. In addition, an attacker can exhaust server resources by opening and closing many TLS sessions.

How can a CDN counteract DDoS attacks?

If your website is the subject of a DDoS attack, a CDN will ensure that the assault does not reach the origin server, rendering your site inoperable. When a server receives more traffic than it can manage, it simply forwards it to other servers. There will be no downtime for your website. Users won’t notice anything, and you won’t either.

Other methods for preventing HTTP floods include the usage of a web application firewall, traffic management and filtering using an IP reputation database, and on-the-fly network monitoring by engineers.

Green Plus CDN can evaluate traffic from several sources, mitigating possible attacks with continually updated WAF rules and other mitigation measures, often before they occur or have a chance to occur.

3 Techniques Mitigate Application Layer DDoS Attacks

Captcha and JavaScript Challenges

CAPTCHA verification is a web technique for determining if a user is a genuine person or a spam machine. CAPTCHAs provide users with altered letters or symbols that must be deciphered by humans. Another method for filtering requests from botnets or attack machines uses JavaScript computational challenges. Most botnets are incapable of dealing with such complicated difficulties.

Behavioral Analytics

Behavioral analytics is a security method that leverages AI and machine learning technologies to analyze and record user and object behavior. It then identifies any unusual activity or traffic that does not fit the typical/daily trends. This approach employs sophisticated analysis, data from logs and reports, and threat data to successfully identify anomalies that may signal hostile behavior. According to computer experts, this strategy allows for the precise detection of rogue actors that may threaten your system.

Web Application Firewall

A web application firewall protects your apps from the internet. An intelligent WAF can manage, filter, and analyze traffic from many sources. WAFs work with the aid of rules and policies that can be easily and quickly customized and updated. This allows it to respond to assaults more quickly. A WAF is the most effective defense against some of the most popular DDoS assaults, including layer seven attacks. Managed WAFs filter layer seven traffic and provide data to cybersecurity specialists who can identify malicious traffic attempting to disrupt your services.

green and gray computer and server

What Is a DNS Server?

To know about a DNS server, first, we need to elaborate on what a server is. A server is a device or software that provides services to other programs known as ‘clients.’ DNS clients, which are included in most current desktop and mobile operating systems, allow web browsers to communicate with DNS servers.

What is a DNS server?

The Domain Name System (DNS) is the Internet’s phonebook. When users input domain names like ‘’ into web browsers, DNS is in charge of determining the correct IP address for those sites. Browsers then use the addresses to interact with origin servers or CDN edge servers to access website information. This is made possible by DNS servers, which are machines specialized in responding to DNS requests.

A DNS server’s goal is to convert what users put into their browser into something that a computer can understand and use to find a website. In other words, its function is to translate a domain name like into an IP address like

Thanks to DNS servers, people no longer have to memorize complicated IP addresses such as, Google’s IP address. They only need to remember

This translation process, known as DNS resolution, necessitates the use of many hardware components. The primary DNS server is the most critical.

How do DNS servers respond to DNS queries?

Four servers work together to send an IP address to the client in a standard DNS query without caching: recursive resolvers, root nameservers, TLD nameservers, and authoritative nameservers.

The DNS recursor (also known as the DNS resolver) is a server that receives the DNS client’s query and then communicates with other DNS servers to find the proper IP address. When the resolver gets the client’s request, it acts as a client, contacting the other three types of DNS servers in search of the correct IP address.
The resolver begins by querying the root nameserver. The root server is the initial stage in converting human-readable domain names into IP addresses (resolving). The root server then answers to the resolver by providing the address of a top-level domain (TLD) DNS server (such that holds information for its domains.

The resolver then requests the TLD server. The TLD server returns the IP address of the domain’s authoritative nameserver. The recursor then contacts the authoritative nameserver, responding with the origin server’s IP address.

Finally, the resolver will return to the client the IP address of the origin server. Using this IP address, the client may then submit a query straight to the origin server, and the origin server will react by returning website data that the web browser can decode and display.

What exactly is DNS caching?

Recursive resolvers can resolve DNS requests utilizing cached data in addition to the procedure described above. The resolver will save the correct IP address for a particular website in its cache for a limited length of time after getting it. If any additional clients submit requests for that domain name during this period, the resolver can skip the regular DNS search procedure and just respond to the client with the IP address held in the cache.

a webite with cdn seurityagainst ddos attacks

Increased Security with CDN

DDoS attacks have grown in popularity as a method for cybercriminals to launch an attack against your website. They don’t require any hacking skills and are all about flooding your website with traffic. A cybercriminal can purchase a botnet for a few dollars and launch a massive amount of traffic to your site with the intent of slowing it down or rendering it inaccessible entirely. Another reason for their popularity is that they are usually used with another cyberattack. DDoS attacks serve as a decoy while a more dangerous attack, such as SQL injection, is launched against your website. SQL injection is an attack in which malicious SQL statements are inserted into a database entry for execution. It enables cybercriminals to impersonate others.

What exactly is a CDN?

The term “content delivery network” (CDN) refers to a system or network of geographically distributed servers worldwide that aims to deliver web content from the origin server to end-users from anywhere in the world. It accomplishes this by storing a cached or copied version of your website’s web page, including the elements required to load, such as HTML, CSS, Javascript, images, and videos.
When a website visitor wants to view a specific web page, a request is sent from the user’s computer or mobile device. All submissions will be routed to the origin server if a CDN is not used. Even in the absence of a DDoS attack, high traffic volume can overwhelm the origin server, resulting in a server crash.

This ability to handle high traffic volumes is also helpful in dealing with unusually high volumes of traffic caused by DDoS attacks. The sheer capacity of cloud CDN solutions’ IT infrastructure can absorb the most potent low-level DDoS attacks.

Tools for Proactive Monitoring and Cleaning

Of course, simply absorbing high volumes of traffic will not suffice. As a result, top CDN operators have various tools to protect websites from multiple types of attacks. These tools are capable of proactive monitoring for potential attacks and inspection and cleansing of traffic for unnatural and harmful visits.

All five major TLS extensions are supported.

TLS, or Transport Layer Security, is a protocol that provides authentication, privacy, and data integrity between the origin server and the CDN server and then between the CDN server and the end-user.

Green Plus CDN, as one of the leading CDN platform providers, supports all five major TLS extensions, including HTTP/2, OCSP Stapling, Dynamic record sizing, ALPN, and Perfect forward secrecy.

green and gray car. How blockchain affect automative industry

Blockchain and Automotive Industry

From components suppliers and manufacturers to consumers and safety regulators, every aspect of the complex automotive industry ecosystem relies on a network of transactions and knowledge. This process starts long before a car is created and continues long after being purchased. The quantity of data that automobile industry companies must keep track of is expanding, from support for developing hardware and services to identifying the source and location of faulty or counterfeit parts. With a shared record of ownership, location, and movement of components and items, Green Plus Blockchain can help increase efficiency, transparency, and trust. Furthermore, the flexibility of blockchain records makes them ideal for keeping up with emerging business models.

Vehicles are increasingly required to include secure, seamless mobility services and the ability to handle micropayments and other interactions with ride-sharing services, intelligent transportation infrastructure, and electric vehicle charging. With Green Plus blockchain, tolls, congestion fees, electric charging, parking, and even payments between automobiles are all possible. With access to the trunk, the system can also allow a car to be utilized as a certain drop point for parcels.

Traceability is critical in this market for knowing a vehicle’s post-sale movements. Makers must trace vehicle movements for regulators and buyers to ensure safety and dependability.
Because of its traceability and transparency, Green Plus blockchain is ideal for tracking purchases, shipping arrangements, dealer transactions, and millions of micropayments in mobility services. Smart contracts built on the blockchain go far beyond tracking and visibility, allowing cash to be released only after a satisfying delivery.


supply chain

Blockchain and Supply Chain

A supply chain is a network that connects a firm to its suppliers and consumers. It encompasses all transactions that occur throughout the transformation of raw materials into marketable items. As a result, all data must be very highly visible and secure. In today’s environment, businesses are accelerating the digitalization of supply chains by implementing new technologies such as blockchain to increase data quality, integrity, and visibility, allowing companies to respond to issues in real-time.

This article explains how supply chain executives are already utilizing data to deal with disruptions and how blockchain adoption will assist in the future.

How Blockchain affects Supply chain

Supply chain interruptions don’t just affect the supply chain; they affect the entire firm, potentially resulting in revenue loss and cost increases. Supply chain interruptions prevent the company from attaining its full potential by delaying product launches, reducing productivity, and degrading customer service.

These Interruptions have exacerbated the planning difficulties businesses confront when they lack insight into their supply chains. If you don’t know where your items are at any one moment, it’s hard to plan or make consumer obligations. If new suppliers or buyers cannot be onboarded promptly, the entire firm suffers.

Blockchain allows multiparty processes to be built around reliable shared and distributed data beyond corporate (and maybe national) boundaries. Improvements such as a greater awareness of where things are can be critical to overcoming the issues that many supply chain companies issues. Blockchain infrastructure helps businesses know the condition of items, increase data accuracy, and enhance supplier management.

Blockchain has the potential to alter supply networks, particularly in terms of data usage. Considerable increases in data quality, as well as significant gains in data integrity and visibility, are just a few of the benefits. Reduced risk, higher customer confidence, enhanced flexibility and sustainability, faster speed, and many other benefits have resulted for supply chain organizations and enterprises as a whole.


insurance and blockchain

How Blockchain Affects Insurance Industry

At the core of the insurance sector, blockchain can simplify and safeguard multi-party operations. Whether you’re dealing with consumers or other parties, Blockchain technology can help you avoid the problems that come with many parties keeping their records. Insurers may use blockchain’s distributed ledger technology to update and validate information against other documents in the network as transactions occur, lowering policy, claim, and relationship management costs, streamlining processes, and improving customer satisfaction. Companies can also generate new revenue and possibilities by developing new business models or insurance products.

In its most basic form, blockchain is a data format that allows for the construction of a digital ledger of transactions and the sharing of such ledgers over a dispersed network of computers. The main advantage of blockchain is that it establishes trust between parties that share data. The information is shared in the form of an electronic list of records or blocks that is encrypted. It can’t be deleted, which helps to maintain user confidence. Once information is recorded, it cannot be modified without modifying all of the other records, ensuring safe user transactions. We can see how this might benefit the life insurance sector since it ensures that data is accurate, safe, and reliable.


A transparent blockchain technology that allows several organizations to compile relevant information can speed up claim recovery. Its shared ledger features can aid insurers in reaching agreements on claims, establishing confidence in the sharing of evidence, and improving the entire customer experience.
Our shared ledger openness can aid employers in reducing mistakes, resulting in better claims processing, provider management, and cheaper operating costs.

From managing contacts among reinsurers to keeping shared accounts and managing claims payments, blockchain helps assure contract certainty and increase risk-handling skills. Blockchain can reduce the requirement for participating firms to balance their reinsurance accounts regularly by providing transparency across the entire value chain.



blockchain and aviation industry

How Blockchain Technology Helps Aviation Industry

Today, one of the significant challenges of the aviation industry is to ensure flight safety. Green Plus, as a leading company in the field of technology, offers a practical solution regarding this matter.

Blockchain technology, which has become very popular recently, offers solutions to various problems, including challenges regarding aviation industry safety. Using this technology, all of the aerial information of an airline is distributed to authorized companies and organizations to access the data live and online.

Hyperledger Fabric Blockchain is a private blockchain with the ability to define different accesses, allowing all its authorized users to access data at their access level. For instance, all aircraft information in a country’s sky can be made available to all domestic airports, air defense, etc. live. On the other hand, all private information related to military aircraft will only be available to authorized organizations, and others will not have access to it. Compared to other existing technologies, the most crucial feature of this technology is its obscurity and immutability, which help prevent any disruption and falsification of records. Green Plus blockchain technology ensures you that its information is highly reliable. Another unique feature of this technology is having constant access to updated information, which allows its users to instantly issue the necessary commands based on the latest changes and gives senior executives the upper hand.

In conclusion, private blockchains are restricted and usually limited to business networks. A single entity, or consortium, controls membership, and there is no way of falsifying the data. This feature will help businesses, including airlines, significantly improve safety and access to up-to-date information.

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Smart Contracts on Blockchain

Traditional contracts can often be problematic. However, smart contracts have risen to solve a lot of these complications. Some of the most critical issues that smart contracts can tackle are problems that involve financial transactions, data accuracy and transparency, speed, and security.

Smart contracts are essentially programs recorded on a blockchain that run when specific criteria are met. They are often used to automate the implementation of an agreement so that all participants are instantly sure of the outcome, without the participation of an intermediary or waste of time. They can also automate a workflow by initiating the next operation once specific conditions are met.

The goal of intelligent contracts, which are written into code on a blockchain, is to simplify business and trade between anonymous and recognized individuals, sometimes without an intermediary. An intelligent contract reduces the formality and expenses associated with traditional techniques while maintaining authenticity and legitimacy. Smart contracts are often used to automate the implementation of an agreement so that all players may be confident of the conclusion instantly, without the participation of an intermediary or the loss of time. They can also automate a workflow by initiating the next operation once specific conditions are met.

How smart contrats work

Intelligent contracts operate by executing basic “if/when…then…” phrases typed into code on a blockchain. When preset circumstances are met and validated, a network of computers conducts the activities. These activities might include transferring payments to the appropriate parties, registering a vehicle, providing alerts, or issuing a ticket. Once the blockchain is updated, the transaction cannot be altered, and the results are only visible to persons who have been granted permission on the network.

Benefits of smart contracts

A critical advantage of smart contracts is that the agreement is instantly executed. Since smart contracts are digital, paperwork will be eliminated, and no time will be wasted correcting errors that frequently occur when filling out forms manually. Another advantage is that they significantly increase trust and transparency. There is no need to question whether information has been manipulated for personal gain because no third party engaged and encrypted transactions are transmitted between participants, so they are immutable. Security is also a significant benefit smart contracts bring. Blockchain transaction records being encrypted leads to data security in a way that your information will be tough to hack. Furthermore, because each record on a distributed ledger is linked to the preceding and subsequent entries, hackers would have to modify the entire chain to change a single record.

A distributed ledger can be used to store contracts entirely digitally. Blockchain infrastructure assists in developing trust, assuring you that your money will be handled appropriately. This is how you may transfer your money to the smart contract so that once the target is met, the funds will be immediately sent to the receiver. The smart contract can never be altered after it is formed. Since everyone on the network confirms the contract’s output, the fund cannot be released forcibly. These benefits have caused many banks, insurance companies, and postal corporations, among others, to utilize smart contracts instead of the traditional method of organizing transactions. Banks can use these contracts to issue loans or to offer automatic payments, and insurance companies could use them to process specific claims. Postal companies could get help from them for payment on delivery. All businesses can benefit from this system, and these were only a few examples to clarify the use cases of smart contracts.